Functional Actives

- Anti-aging

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are ions or very small molecules, such as oxygen ions, produced as normal products of cellular metabolism. Equipped with a number of defense mechanisms, ROS are designed to provide physical and biochemical protection. Because O2 has unpaired electrons, it plays a main role in the formation of ROS, which include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals generated by the reduction phase from O2. (Figure 1)

Figure 1. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)

Aging is a complex process that is manifested within organisms at genetic, molecular, cellular, organ, and system levels. According to the oxidative stress theory, key contributors to the process of aging in cells and tissues are oxidative stress caused by ROS. The induction of oxidative stress by ROS plays a direct or indirect role in many conditions such as vascular disease, neurodegeneration, ischemia, aging, cell death, inflammatory responses, and even cancer. (Figure 2)

Figure 2. Mechanism of aging caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS)

The generation of ROS in cells can be quantified by the oxidation of non-fluorescent dihydroethidium (DHE) to fluorescent ethidium and the subsequent binding (intercalation) of ethidium to DNA. Epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) show significantly lower levels of DHE staining than the keratinocyte and fibroblast populations. Levels of superoxide are substantially higher in the dermal fibroblasts and basal keratinocytes than in the epidermal stem cells, indicating that superoxide is an aging factor. (Figure 3)

Figure 3. DHE staining of superoxide in skin cells

Figure 3. DHE staining of superoxide in skin cells. Fbs: fibroblasts, Ker: keratinocyte, EpiSc: epidermal stem cells, Ant: antimycin A (electron transport chain blocker)

Antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. It reduces the effect of dangerous oxidants by binding with harmful molecules, decreasing their destructive power. (Figure 4)

Figure 4. Action mode of Antioxidants

·Myricetin Protects Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis via Regulation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK Signaling Pathways. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2010, 11(11), 4348-4360.

·Myricetin suppresses oxidative stress-induced cell damage via both direct and indirect antioxidant action. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2010, 29(1), 12-18.

·Baicalein Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 by Regulating the ERK/JNK/AP-1 Pathway in Human Keratinocytes. Biomolecules & therapeutics, 2012, 20(1), 57-61.

Our products

·Myritox, Dongbaek (Tsubaki) Oil, HerbEx Grape Seed Extract, HerbEx Green Tea Extract.